[ Osmosis sound symbol] So hepatitis –meaning like this inflammation of the liver– most commonly comes about because of a virus. These viruses tend to target thecells in the liver, right? And when they get in and foul these cadres, they tend to cause them to present these funny and abnormal proteins via their MHC class 1 molecules. And at the same time, youve too got these immune cells infiltrating the liver and trying tofigure out whats going on. And so the CD8-positive T-cells recognize these abnormal proteins as a indicate that the cadres are pretty much toast. And the hepatocytes then go throughcytotoxic killing by the T-cells and apoptosis. Hepatocytes undergoing apoptosis are sometimesreferred to as Councilman torsoes, shown on histology now. And this typically takes arrange in the portal areas and the lobules of the liver. This cytotoxic killing two the hepatocytes is the main mechanism behind rednes of the liver and –eventually– liver damage in viralhepatitis. As people hepatitis progresses, well find a got a couple of classic manifestations related to your immune plan organizing an attack: like delirium, malaise, and nausea. Additionally though, cases might have hepatomegaly, where their liver is abnormally gigantic from rednes –which also might generate some aching, right? As more and more damage is done to the liver, the amount of transaminases in their blood will increase.This is because your liver has thesetransaminase enzymes so it can do its enterprise of broken off various amino battery-acids. Commonly the serum amino transaminase –or the amount[ experienced] in your blood– is pretty low. But when your hepatocytes start going shattered, they start leaking these into the blood, So a common indicate is a greater amount of both alanine aminotransferase –or ALT– and aspartate aminotransferase –orAST. Typically, even though both are heightened, ALT will be greater than AST in viral hepatitis and it’ll also be the last liver enzyme to return to regular. Too, elevated levels of atypical lymphocytes are common to see with viral hepatitis –known as atypical lymphocytosis. The lymphocytes are usually massive –very large– due to stimulation from antigens, in our case the hepatitis virus antigens. Patients often likewise end up developing jaundice, with a mixture of both conjugated bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin. The conjugated bilirubin seeps out when bile ductules are injured or destroyed –when the hepatocytes die– because those hepatocytes even up some of its liner. Likewise, since these hepatocytes are dying, you start to lose the ability to conjugate bilirubin and make it water-soluble; and so, you end up with unconjugated bilirubin, as well.So, because there both conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin in the blood, some of the water-soluble conjugated bilirubin does filtered into the urine, generating it this darker colour. Another common acquire is increased urobilinogen in the urine. Urobilinogen is produced when bilirubin is reduced in the gut by intestinal microbes. Commonly, most ofthat’s reabsorbed and transported back to the liver to be converted into bilirubinor bile again.But if these liver cadres arent succeeding privilege, that urobilinogen is redirectedto the kidneys and ejected, so you end up with more urobilinogen in your urine. If manifestations continue, or the virus persists around for more than 6 months, viral hepatitis goes from being “acute” to being “chronic”hepatitis. At this degree, inflammation chiefly is happening to the portal plot. And if the inflammationand fibrosis save happening, we consider that a pretty bad sign, since it might be progressingto postnecrotic cirrhosis. Now, there was still five known “flavors” of hepatitis virus that have slightly different and unique dimensions. Hepatitis A is transmitted through ingestion of adulterated food or water, in other words the fecal-oral route, and is known to be acquired by travelers. Hepatitis A virus –or HAV, for short– is almost always acute. And there is essentially no chronic HAV. If were talking serological markers, an HAV-IgM antibody demonstrates an active infection; whereas an HAV-IgG antibody is a protective antibody that tells us that theres been recovery from HAV or vaccination in the past. Hepatitis E virus is actually pretty similar to HAV, with the same route of transmitting –oral-fecal.And it’s most commonly acquired through undercooked seafood or contaminated irrigate. It likewise doesnt have much of a chronic commonwealth. And HEV-IgM antibodies tell us that theres an active infection and HEV-IgG antibody is protective and signals recovery –just like HAV. Two big differences to note, though, between these two guys is that one: merely HAV has the option for immunization; and two: HEV infection for pregnant women can be very serious, And[ it] can lead to acute liver failure, also sometimes called fulminant hepatitis. All title. Next on the docket is Hepatis C virus. Now this guy is transmitted via the blood. So it could be from childbirth, intravenous substance abuse, or unprotected sexuality. HCV generally does move on to chronic hepatitis. And there are a couple of tests that we use to help diagnose HCV. One course is by enzyme immunoassay. In this case, marriage screenfor the HCV-IgG antibody. If present, it doesnt inevitably demonstrate acute, chronic, or even resolved infection, because it isnt regarded as a protective antibody –like it is in HAV and HEV.To get more specific confirmation, you might use recombinant immunoblot assay, which aids approve HCV. Its more specific, but less sensitive than the immunoassay. Clinically, recombinant immunoblot assay doesnt supply much usefulness and actually needs an additional, supplemental test if it’s positive. That tell me anything, the gold standardfor HCV diagnosis is an HCV RNA test. Using PCR –or polymerase chain reaction– this methodcan detect the virus very early on –as early as one to two weeks after infection. Mostly, it identifies high levels of viral RNA in the blood, which tells us the levels of viruscirculating. If RNA levels begin to decrease, we know that the patients recovering; if RNA remains the same, individual patients probably has chronic HCV.Okay. On to hepatitis B. HBV is just like HCV in that its contracted via the blood. So[ it’s through] the same routes –like childbirth, unprotected sex, and others. HBV, nonetheless, simply moves on to chronic hepatitis in twenty percent of cases overall. But it also depends on the age that someone does polluted. For speciman, children less than six years old are most likely to get chronic illness –about fifty percent.And that percentage increases the younger they are. Likewise, chronic HBV is known to be linked to liver cancer. And all these things make HBV and the serology of HBV a super-important conceptto understand. And various kinds of like hepatitis C, we can use a variety of testing programmes –like PCR– to look for certain markers, especially the HBV antigens. And the spirit –or absence– of each of these, at different time points, can tell us different things. All right. So the key marker for HBV infection is the HBV surface antigen. And this is going to be like the super-villain in this story. And this evil-doer lives on the surface of the virus –here– and we can call it HBsAg –meaning: Hepatitis Bsurface antigen.Another marker, though, is a core antigen –meaning that these antigenscome from the core of the virus– HBcAg. Think of these like the superfluous collaborators thatwork inside the rascals evil plant. Ultimately, theres this other antigen –called the e-antigen– which is secreted by polluted cells; and so, it’s this marker of activeinfection. These are like the by-products of the factory. And together with viral DNA, they tell us that its replicating and infecting. All liberty. So at the onset of infection, during the acute phase, our face antigen super-villain will definitely be present, and will come up positive. And its plant will bepumpin out both viral DNA and e-antigen. At this spot, the immune arrangement raises IgM antibodies against the core antigens –against the henchmen– so think of these like your basic police force that work against the core collaborators. These antibodies spoof away at the core antigens and they truly try their hardest. But in order to actually defeat this criminal, this virus, you need to go for the supervillain, right? The face antigen. So, the work requires a superheroto go after it.So, in this story the IgG antibody for the surface antigen is our superhero.At this top, the emcee recruits this spooky phase called the window, where neither thesupervillain nor the superhero can be identified, because theyre both so low, and it is possible to lastfrom several weeks to months, its like this wars being waged but we dont knowwhos came to see you on top. The only thing you can detect during this stage is the IgMcore antibodies, the police force. At this spot, two things can happen, if the superherocomes out, the IgG antibodies to the surface antigen, then were golden, and this implies theday is saved and we earn. The other potential is that the supervillain prevails, and surfaceantigens are still, again, spied, there may also be a presence of HBV DNA and e-Antigenbecause its now repeating and the factory’s up and running again. The main point though is that there will not bethe IgG for skin-deep antigens, our superhero. Regardless of who earns, the IgM antibodies, the police force, will be encouraged to IgG by about 6 “months “, but this does not mean thatthe host is protected.So its important to note that we need this face IgG superheroto win, but we can have core IgG and still lose. If the combats lost, the legion transitionsinto chronic viral hepatitis, defined by it continuing after 6 months. When chronic, thehost could present as, sort of healthy, and is very likely to have the presence of surface antigen, core antibody, and no DNA or e-Antigen, basically saying that the supervillains there, itsjust not mimicking, and at this site the legion is epidemic, however lower risk.The other alternative is that theyre infective, making the whole villain force is activealong with an overwhelmed police force. This regime increases the likelihood for postnecroticcirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. One channel to get around this whole fiasco is byimmunization, which bounces these steps and does you right to the IgG superhero antibodyfor skin-deep antigen. Alright, not least, well maybe it’s the least, I dunno. Regardless, Hepatitis D virus is unique in that it needs HBV, meaning that it can only infect the multitude if that multitude also hasHBV.If it pollutes at the same time, its announced co-infection, if it fouls sometimelater, its called superinfection, which is considered to be more severe that co-infection.If either the IgM or IgG antibody are present, that indicates an active infection, so inthis case the IgG is not a protective antibody. And that is a very brief overview of viral hepatitis ..