Introduction to Information Technology: Part 2

So, let’s talk a little bit about some ofthe details of the technology that you interact with every day. Let’s start with the Internet.The Internet was created by beings. Where did it come from? Well, primarily it wasfunded by the Defense Department which is a United Regime busines. It was money andconceptualized and bring out for dictation by an organization called The Advanced Research Projects Agency.ARPA is what the acronym is stressed as. It has since become something that is morefamiliar perhaps, DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. So, ARPA beforeDARPA was responsible for creating the Internet for getting parties together in order to buildthis thing that we call the Internet. The key thing that was different about the Internetthan from engineering that came before it, for example the telephone, was an innovationcalled packet switching.Prior to packet switching we had something that was announced circuit switching.If you know of age-old videos or age-old photographs of beings, specially telephoneoperators, putting wires into this big board and trying to connect phone calls … mymom actually had this job when she was growing up. She was responsible for creating circuitsbetween different parties at different places of the world, and she would have to listento phone calls in order to hear the people that were on the phone who would ask her tomake a connection to some other location on the other side of the person mainly. So, she would plug in the wires to create a circuit between two locations. So, if you made a telephonecall you were actually communicating across one long extended wire that was manually connected.So, what the Internet did is it enabled many different conferences to be able to travelover one single cable by breaking up the conversation into containers rather than requiring one separatecircuit to create an end-to-end connection between the people that wanted to communicate.That was the key innovation of ARPANET, and it was what was the basis of the Internetthat we know today.The Internet was initially organized between four different locations, andthis is a class in the University of California and one thing that we don’t talk very muchabout is how instrumental the University of California was in the formation of the Internet.In fact, two of the first four nodes that were on the Internet were University of Californiacampuses. They were UCLA and UC Santa Barbara. The other two nodes “thats been” the first onARPA’s Internet were SOI which is up in Stanford and the University of Utah. They used somethingcalled IMPs which are Interface Message Processors. These were basically the first network cards, but they didn’t sit inside a computer.They were outside the computer. These IMPs connectedthese four orientations and enabled the packets to be switched between these different locationsover one circuit. That first Internet message was sent on October 10, 1969. It was sentby a UCLA student programmer appointed Charley Kline about 10:30 at night. He transmittedthat sense from personal computers announced SDS Sigma 7, that was the host computer, and mail itto Stanford’s Research Institute in a different SDS computer. The assault of that communicationis shown here in the enter. This is a paper log that researchers were be tracked ofto certificate their progress. The aim was to log into that computer. So, the languagethat they referred were the word L for login, and then the word O, and immediately afterthey sent the O personal computers disintegrated. So, literally the first content that was senton the Internet was L O, LO. Now, a couple hours later they got the computers back onlineand they were able to successfully removed from the crash and send a ended mastery, log in, and with that the Internet was born with that one communication. So, that firstlink was in October of 1969. A permanent tie-up was established about a month later on the2 1st of November.Then by December 5, 1969, all four of those nodes had been connectedin a permanent system that were sending packs backward and forward around this person Internet, although we don’t know how often it was crashing after that. Now, in latitude something elsewas going on with the creation of the Internet. There was something that was being createdin Hawaii through the University of Hawaii system called ALOHAnet. ALOHAnet was doingsomething slightly different. They were trying to connect the Hawaiian Islands by radio.So, unlike land-based depots, Hawaii didn’t have significant benefits of being able to be connectedby wire. At that item they didn’t have undersea cables that were connecting small island developing forthis purpose, and so they were trying to do the same thing, but they were trying to doit over radio networks.So, the key innovation in ALOHAnet was allowing 7 different computersto use the medium. The medium in this case was the radio frequency that they were usingto communicate the message, and being able to use all the computers to communicate atthe same time, the same frequency, and still be able to get their message through. Thistechnology became the foundation for how mobile phones when you talk on them are able to alluse the same frequencies, and has all along been derived of course, but primarily use the same frequenciesin order to communicate even though all the phones around you are using the same frequency.It likewise became the basis for Wi-Fi communication. How computers connect to the Wi-Fi networkowes its patrimony to that which was developed at the ALOHAnet. So, key milestones in theinvention of the Internet were 1969 ARPAnet sent the first content which was a landline-basedsystem. In 1970 we’re very sad, the first e-mail was sent.Of track live has neverbeen the same since. In 1971 in latitude the first ALOHAnet demo was realized. Then in 1972 ARPAnet and ALOHAnet came together and those two were connected to form a joint network.By 1973 there is indeed 40 nodes in the entire ARPAnet network, so it was growing slowlybut steadily and it included the first international node which was located in Norway. 12 yearslater in 1985 the ARPAnet that was in existence at that point got split into two separatenetworks. One was the military side of the network, and another was the civilian sideof the network. The military area branched off. The civilian surface became what is knownas NSFnet and became the civilian Internet. That continued flourishing until 1995 at whichpoint the linchpin was transitioned to private corporations and the backbone being managed bycommercial corporations from then on. So, from then the Internet has had a structure similarto what we see in 2014. This graphic here just goes to show in 1991 what the connectionswere in NSFnet, those white rows being the linchpin that were connecting major centres likefreeways connect metropolitans if you drive by gondola, and the horizontal pink and yellowish boundaries showingthe smaller ties-in that would go from these regional hubs down to local universitiesin the same way that arterial arteries or residential nodes connect residences with the freeway.Thecolors represent how much traffic was being direct at that time. So, that is the originof the Internet in a nutshell. What I anticipate would be important now is to talk about someother kinds of terminology that are going to be talked about as we talk about informationtechnology ..

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